RIPEMD 128-bit version came as a quick fix replacement to overcome vulnerabilities on the original RIPEMD. This property of hash function protects against an attacker who has an input value and its hash, and wants to substitute different value as legitimate value in place of original input value. The mid square method is a very good hash function. Also, if a hash function is collision-resistant then it is second pre-image resistant. The original version is SHA-0, a 160-bit hash function, was published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1993. Here, h(k) is the hash value obtained by dividing the key value k by size of hash table n using the remainder. So the concept of hashing arise. One example of a hash function is called folding. This set of hash functions was designed by open research community and generally known as a family of European hash functions. A disadvantage of the division method id that consecutive keys map to consecutive hash values in the hash table. Hash functions are extremely useful and appear in almost all information security applications. In other words, for a hash function h, it is hard to find any two different inputs x and y such that h(x) = h(y). Since a hash is a smaller representation of a larger data, it is also referred to as a digest. In 2004, collisions were found in MD5. Adapting Knuth’s suggestion, c to be fraction of the form s / 2^32. The index for a specific string will be equal to sum of ASCII values of characters multiplied by their respective order in the string after which it is modulo with 2069 (prime number). SHA-2 family has four further SHA variants, SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and SHA-512 depending up on number of bits in their hash value. This takes an original value, divides it into several parts, then adds the parts and uses the last four remaining digits as the hashed value or key. Each round takes an input of a fixed size, typically a combination of the mo… It however, does not provide any assurance about originality. This property means it should be hard to find two different inputs of any length that result in the same hash. This integrity check application is useful only if the user is sure about the originality of file. One of the designer was Vincent Rijmen, a co-creator of the AES. Though from same family, there are structurally different. If the hash table size \(M\) is small compared to the resulting summations, then this hash function should do a good job of distributing strings evenly among the hash table slots, because it gives equal weight to all characters in the string. An example of the Division Method is as follows −. In other words, if a hash function h produced a hash value z, then it should be a difficult process to find any input value x that hashes to z. 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